38 IRRAWADDY ROAD #07-28
MOUNT ELIZABETH NOVENA SPECIALIST CENTRE
CONTACT: +65 6355 0522

What causes our skin to age?

June 13, 2018

What causes our skin to age?

We know that ageing is a natural process that cannot be changed. Fine lines, wrinkles, sagging and dark spots are some changes in the skin as we grow older. While some of these changes are unavoidable, certain signs of ageing are actually caused by sun damage and can be avoided. Some knowledge of the mechanism of the human ageing process can allow you to be more adept at ways to slow down such effects.

The process of skin aging can be classified into 2 groups: extrinsic ageing and intrinsic ageing. The two processes are biologically different.

Extrinsic ageing

This factor includes physical, chemical or environmental factors that the skin is exposed to. A major contributor to extrinsic ageing is UV radiation. Cumulative exposure to the sun in an individual’s lifetime can add up to cause significant damage to the skin.

Other external factors are cigarette smoking, air pollution, and exposure to cold, heat, dust and smog. Our lifestyle choices can also take a toll on our skin e.g. exercise, sleeping habits, diet or stress. Varying circumstances through all these factors can cause oxidative stress. This leads to some extent of dysfunction across our cells, mitochondria, DNA and could manifest as inflammation, cellular membrane damage or even immune dysfunction for instance.

UVA and UVB radiation causes photoageing. As UVA can penetrate deeper into the skin (greater penetration depth) and generate unwanted radicals, it is said to be more responsible for photoageing. UVB rays are mostly absorbed by the outer skin layers and causes DNA damage within the outer skin cells.

Photoageing

Photoageing is a slow process resulting from chronic exposure to UV radiation. Skin type and accumulative lifetime exposure to the sun can determine the degree of photoageing. When UV light penetrates the skin, cells produce melanin to form as a protective barrier (this is also how a tan is developed!). The melanin pigment helps to reflect some of the rays. The rest of the radiation that is not reflected will be absorbed by the skin cells. This can damage the cells that function to develop tissue fibers for the skin’s structure.

In photoaged skin, the epidermis (outermost skin layer) becomes more fragile and less elastic. There is greater damage of elastic tissue and a decrease in cellularity. It can cause elastosis, where there is an overgrowth of elastic fibers. Rough spots called actinic keratoses can also be caused by excessive UV exposure, which can be precancerous skin lesions.

Antioxidant and skin ageing

UV radiation causes oxidative damage. This means it produces excessive free radicals within the skin cells. Free radicals are formed when atoms or molecules loose electrons. They are generated by our own bodies during normal metabolic process, but external sources such as from UV radiation may cause excessive amounts. Excessive free radicals can lead to human skin disorders and premature skin ageing for example. Exposure to air pollutants can also trigger the release of free radicals.

The human skin has antioxidant enzymes to help protect against free radicals, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) biosynthesizing enzymes. Other antioxidant molecules you may be familiar with are vitamins A, C and E. Antioxidants protect cells by interacting with the free radicals and neutralizing them by “donating” electrons to prevent unwanted damage.

You can think of the antioxidants as the ‘good’ molecules in your fight against ageing. However, these antioxidants reduce in number over time, thus a weaker ability to combat against free radicals and against ageing. With weaker defence against free radicals, the skin begins to show signs of photoageing.

Intrinsic ageing

Intrinsic ageing can also be understood as genetically programmed ageing. Structural proteins such as collagen and elastin, a major component of the dermis, and organelles such as mitochondria are produced less over the course of time. DNA functions and repair abilities decline with time. Thinning and loss of the skin’s elasticity happens as visible manifestations of these changes. Chronologic ageing can also be caused by hormonal changes.

Preventing the ageing process

To improve skin quality, there are various treatments available.

  • Sunscreens have been long perceived as a vital prevention measure to reduce UV damage. Look for a dermatologist tested sunscreen with minimum SPF30. Apply and reapply religiously (every 3 hours for optimal protection).
  • Retinoids have shown to reverse sun damage and can improve the skin’s extracellular matrix (which provides structural and biochemical support to cells).
  • Cosmeceuticals may serve as a ready consistent supply of antioxidants
  • Dermal fillers can restore volume loss and remove skin wrinkles
  • Chemical peels use acids to regenerate and improve the appearance of aged skin

On your own, certain lifestyle habits can be changed to slow down the process of skin ageing. Adequate exercise and sleep are vital in general regulation of bodily functions which combat aging. Quitting smoking can cut out exposure to unwanted chemicals and pollutants. A diet rich in antioxidants can also be helpful. Keep hydrated and cleanse your skin regularly to remove dirt and pollutants / chemicals (which may cause oxidative stress) from the skin.

© 2018 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

A Dermatologist Explains Rosacea and How to Treat It

June 11, 2018

 

If you experience persistent redness on your face, you may be suffering from rosacea. It is a common inflammatory skin condition that impacts a large portion of the fair-skinned population. Rosacea is more prevalent in women between 30 and 50 years of age, but there can be manifestations of the condition across all age groups.

Although it may be more common in people with fair skin, blue eyes and Celtic ascendance, rosacea is not uncommon in Asian populations. The itchy, stinging skin condition is often mistaken for eczema, leading to non-precise treatments that may exacerbate the condition.

Constant facial redness is the most common sign of rosacea and resembles a frequent flush or sunburn that does not go away. Such redness may be accompanied by a tingling heat or warmth that comes and goes.

 

Types of Rosacea

Rosacea can be classified into 4 clinical subtypes: erthematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous and ocular. Most subtypes have characteristics of flushing and telangiectasia, where small blood vessels are prominent and visible. Patients are often diagnosed with more than one rosacea subtype and experience increased sensitivity of the facial skin such as burning, stinging or itchy sensations.

Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is characterised by redness and flushing in the centre of the face, with telangiectasia present in most patients. The skin may be very sensitive and swollen.Telangiectasias are visible small, broken or widened blood vessels. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is the most common subtype and has a tendency to flush or blush more easily than other people.

Papulopustular rosacea is marked by bumps and pimples that result from chronic inflammation. Redness is also visible in this subtype, while telangiectasias may not be as evident here. This subtype may have acne-like breakouts and oily skin, but it must be differentiated from acne as the treatment required differs.

Phymatous rosacea is uncommon in women and develops over years. Marked by thickened skin and irregular skin surface, it has a bumpy texture. This subtype is rare, as the patient often has symptoms of another rosacea subtype first. The skin may thicken on the nose, chin, forehead, cheeks and ears, and pores appear large.

Patients with ocular rosacea may feel a burning sting around the eyes and experience crusty discharge on the lashes or eyelids. For this subtype, rosacea is affecting mostly the eye. The eyes may be more sensitive to light. Eyelids can be swollen and styes can be frequent. Patients having this condition may also have a watery or bloodshot appearance and may not have their vision as well as before.

 

What causes rosacea?

According to Dr Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre, she said:  “There is an underlying genetic predisposition for patients with rosacea, individuals with a family history of rosacea are more likely to develop the condition. While studies on the cause of rosacea remain unclear, it is proposed that underlying features are inflammation and vascular reactivity, leading to erythema (redness) and presence of papules and pustules.”

Certain triggers can stimulate an immune response, such as alcohol consumption, spices, hormones, stress, UV radiation, microbes, extreme weathers, humidity and certain cosmetics.

In the pathogenesis of rosacea, it is proposed that a microbial organism called Demodex Folliculoru incites a flare by triggering an immune response in patients with rosacea. In simpler terms, patients with rosacea do not react well to certain triggers as they incite an exaggerated immune response. The immune system then releases an overproduction of factors, leading to inflammation and vascular dilation.

 

Treating rosacea

Treatment begins with a proper diagnosis, including identifying the subtype. Most therapies focus on suppressing the symptoms and targeting inflammation.

Lifestyle interventions include using high-factor sunscreens, patient education, dietary changes and avoiding irritants and triggers. Photoprotection has always been an important step, but for patients with rosacea, it becomes even more crucial as photoprotection may prevent a flare triggered by sun exposure.

A gentle skin care regimen is recommended to maintain skin hydration and barrier function. As the psychosocial impact of rosacea can greatly influence individuals, whilst cover-up or colour-correcting powders can also be recommended to mitigate the effect.

Topical treatment options to inhibit the inflammatory pathways that are involved in rosacea include azelaic acid, erythromycin and metronidazole. Depending on the severity of the condition and the patient’s skin sensitivity, the medium of the topicals may be lotion, cream, gel or foam.

Short-term oral antibacterials such as tetracyclines and macrolides may also be prescribed when topical therapies fail to control the disease. For persistent cases of rosacea, oral isotretinoin may also be required. Laser, light-based therapies and surgical interventions are also treatment options for certain patients.

 

Conclusion

Rosacea is a serious medical condition that is often underdiagnosed and undertreated, even though this condition potentially has a great psychosocial impact on the affected individual. As the common initial symptoms are often mistaken for something else,such as sunburn, rosacea may go undiagnosed for most patients.

A proper diagnosis along with precise treatments can significantly improve the patient’s quality of life. If symptoms of rosacea appear, it is recommended to consult an accredited dermatologist for advice and proper management, to prevent the condition from getting worse.

© 2018 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

A Dermatologist Guide to Alpha Hydroxyl Acid (AHA) Facial Treatments

May 31, 2018

 

Alpha Hydroxyl Acid (AHA) Facial Treatments

Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) are naturally-occurring compounds possessing unparalleled benefits to the skin and extensively used in a dermatologist’s office. Most AHAs are non-toxic and are often present in food and fruits, thus also known as fruit acids.

The types of AHA used commonly for cosmetic purposes are glycolic acid and lactic acid. Glycolic acid, found in sugar cane, has the smallest molecule of all the AHAs and is the most widely used acid in skincare. Lactic acid is present in sour milk and tomato juice and can be found in our bodies as a byproduct of metabolic processes.

Certain types of AHA have lipophilic (ability to dissolve in lipids/fats) side groups in its chemical structure such as mandelic acid and benzylic acid. Such acids are more soluble in lipids over the conventional water-soluble AHAs, thus are often used for oily and acne-prone skin.

Uses as a peeling agent

AHAs are commonly used in peeling procedures as a short intense exposure to the acid produces benefits to the skin. A chemical peel is the application of one or more chemical exfoliating agents to the skin, and by exerting a controlled epidermal injury, it allows regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissue. Such treatments are often used to treat skin disorders and conditions for aesthetic improvement.

Using controlled higher concentrations of AHAs, application to the skin for short times can achieve substantial desquamation (skin peeling). This renewal of skin cells is useful in anti-ageing, reducing hyperpigmentation and improving radiance. It is important to have a chemical peel conducted by an accredited dermatologist, to prevent uneven peeling and dermal wounding.

In contrast to other peeling agents, such as phenol or salicylic acid, most of the AHAs are nutritive and physiologic.

Pre-peeling preparation

According to Dr Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre, to prepare the skin for a regeneration phase, pre-treatment is necessary. The cosmetic conditions most suitable for a chemical peel would be features of photo ageing, such as solar lentigines, sallowed complexions, rough and textured skin, fine lines or wrinkles, acne scarring or hyperpigmentation. Whilst most skin types can opt for an AHA chemical peel, it is imperative to first seek assessment by an accredited dermatologist who will cater the peel, such as the acid type, strength, frequency and duration, for variability of individual skin conditions. Performed properly by a trained dermatologist, risk of scarring from a chemical peel is drastically reduced. The level of expertise in administering peels ensures a good outcome.

Prior to the actual application of the chemical peel substance, the skin will need to be thoroughly cleansed to remove oil and debris before being rinsed and dried.

Treatment with Chemical Peel

The peeling agent (AHAs) will be applied on the skin using an applicator or a brush. The duration of allowing the peeling agent to be in contact with the skin varies according to the skin’s conditions as assessed by the dermatologist. With superficial peels, some sensation of heat and stinging may be experienced, before the peeling agent is neutralized (where applicable) and thoroughly cleansed off after the duration of contact recommended by the dermatologist. The chemical peel treatment is completed at our clinic with application of a hydrating Amino Acid Masque to soothe and calm the skin post-peel. Additional post peel care requires the use of sunscreens and other photoprotective agents, due to sun sensitivity post-treatment. It should be noted that regular application of sunscreen is advocated as it can reduce sun damage and aggravating of skin conditions.

How does a chemical peel work?

For superficial peels, the acid causes breakdown and decreases cohesiveness of corneocytes, that are found at the outermost part of the epidermis. Desquamation occurs, allowing renewal from lower epidermal layers. By weakening and ‘ungluing’ the cells in the inner stratum layer, it leads to uniform exfoliation of the outermost stratum layers.

With a low PH, most acid peels need to be properly neutralized to prevent acidification of the skin. To avoid burning, AHA peels are neutralized with basic salts such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydroxide.

A chemical peel does not compromise the barrier structure or integrity of the skin, as the mechanism of action of AHAs on the skin is a more targeted action for epidermal skin renewal.

Conclusion

As a treatment that improves skin texture and counters the effects of ageing, chemical peels continue to be relied on for various skin conditions. It is also safe for the skin and human health in general, as extensively tried and tested by dermatologist’s. A range of AHA formulations and concentrations are available for the dermatologist to administer therapy according to the patient’s requirements.

Speak to your dermatologist today for a tailored experience.

© 2018 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

 

Why See a Dermatologist?

May 29, 2018

 

What is a dermatologist?

A dermatologist (skin specialist) is a qualified medical specialist who has obtained qualifications to specialise in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of skin, nail and hair diseases. Dermatologists are trained in cosmetic skin problems and aesthetic procedures. Only doctors listed as dermatologists by the Ministry of Health are recognised dermatologists. Cosmetic lasers, treatments, botulinum toxin and filler injections were developed by dermatologists. Aesthetic doctors are not skin specialists, they are family practitioners(GPs) who need to be accredited by the Dermatological Society of Singapore to carry out these procedures. Having a diploma in dermatology (Dip Derm) or a diploma in family practice dermatology (Dip FP Dermatology) does not qualify a doctor to be a dermatologist.

— Dermatological Society of Singapore

In this article, we break down some common FAQ, tips that have helped our patients and media friends navigate their way in their skincare journey with us. We hope it can help you to make the right decision about the health of your skin.  Find an accredited dermatologist here.

 

  1.       What can a dermatologist tell you that an “aesthetic doctor” can’t about your skin?

There are a few layers to answering this question actually. Firstly, there is actually no such thing as an aesthetic doctor, either a dermatologist, plastic surgeon or a general practitioner as aesthetic medicine is not considered a medical speciality.

The public should refer to the Singapore Medical Council guidelines with regards to the “aesthetic doctor” label, which actually is not an approved qualification or title, as the practice of “aesthetic medicine” is actually the realm of specialist dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Procedures such as chemical peels and lasers, botulinum toxin and fillers re developed and used by dermatologists, but are increasingly practised by non-dermatologists such as general practitioners (GP, family practice doctors). Having a diploma in dermatology (Dip Derm) or a diploma in family practice dermatology (Dip FP Dermatology) does not qualify a doctor to be a dermatologist. In Singapore, GPs require additional Certifications of Competency (COC) to carry out such treatments in Singapore, which is administered by the Dermatological Society of Singapore.(Source: Dermatological Society of Singapore)

So the real question should be.. what a GP who offers treatment for dermatological conditions can’t tell you, compared to a dermatologist.

A dermatologist (skin specialist) is a qualified medical specialist who, through additional years of special training, has obtained qualifications to specialise in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of skin, nail and hair diseases affecting persons of all ages. Dermatologists are also trained in cosmetic skin problems and aesthetic procedures. In Singapore, to qualify as a dermatologist, a doctor needs to obtain a post-graduate degree in general internal medicine or paediatrics which may take up to 5 years before acceptance into a full-time dermatology training programme in a recognised dermatological institute lasting 3 years. At the end of this training, the Ministry of Health certifies the doctor as a dermatologist. Only doctors listed as dermatologists by the Ministry of Health are recognised dermatologists.

Dermatologists are experts in the treatment of skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin infections, skin allergy, skin cancers and hair loss. Dermatologists also treat all kinds of cosmetic problems of the skin and provide advice on skin health. Special treatments such as surgery for skin cancers and pre-cancerous skin conditions, the use of ultraviolet light therapy, laser therapy, intense pulsed light (IPL), radio-frequency therapy, botulinum toxin and filler injections and hair transplantations are also carried out by dermatologists. In fact, many cosmetic lasers and treatments were initially developed by dermatologists.

At the end of the day, be it in skin or other specialities, the public should just be discerning as to the qualifications of the doctor, and what a medical specialist accredited by the Ministry of Health is trained to do for specialised conditions, as long as they are not misled to believe that they are seeing a skin or an aesthetic specialist when they are seeing a general practitioner.

 

  1.   “Aesthetic Doctors (General practitioners) and Dermatologists – Are treatments offered the same?

The practice of medicine is really as much an art as well as a science, meaning that while many general practitioners would say they have experience treating say dermatological conditions in the family practice setting, there is a real difference in training, knowledge and experience of a dermatologist. A specialist dermatologist takes additional years (at least 5 years) and goes through specialist accreditation managing complex medical and cosmetic dermatology conditions as well as complications associated with treatment. Certainly, for straightforward cases of any medical condition, family practice doctors are able to treat but would not be able to distinguish or diagnose conditions as accurately as a specialist dermatologist.

 

  1. Tell me about an example where it mattered to see a qualified dermatologist

         A case study in point: Adult Patient with pimples

If you are an adult and still struggle with pimples, then be warned your case would not be as simple as the on-off breakouts that teenagers have, which is physiological acne. Both would respond to some degree to conventional acne medication such as topical and oral antibiotics but would have a limited effectiveness if the true underlying cause is not considered. There may be a much more serious underlying medical condition, for example.

When acne persists into adulthood, dermatologists are trained to consider and work with specialist gynaecologists to diagnose and rule out secondary factors such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, which is associated with irregularities of the menstrual cycle, excess facial hair growth, weight gain as well as acne, which is actually treated most effectively with a hormonal contraceptive pill. Dermatologists would also perform adjunctive treatments like chemical peels for a quick response, to remove existing blackheads (open comedones)  and whiteheads( closed comedones) and reduce the appearance of scars. While one may wonder if the beautician or aesthetic doctor could perform the same peel, be warned that if you struggle with sensitive dry yet acne prone skin, your condition could get much worse when it is not managed by an accredited dermatologist. The choice and duration of the chemical peel (concentration, composition and source) are operator dependent.

In addition, your dermatologist may suggest that chemical peels may not be suitable for you at all if you have underlying facial eczema, and may treat your eczema at the same time as acne. Anecdotally, I have had experience with patients who attended my clinic and were purportedly recommended with “oxygen facials” by “aesthetic doctors” for their sensitive skin for years. They actually were diagnosed with facial eczema, which is a medical condition managed by dermatologists. There is no evidence for using oxygen facials or any type of “facials” to treat facial eczema and in fact, could worsen the condition. If left untreated, it could spread and lead to severe infections and scarring.

© 2017 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

 

A Dermatologist’s Guide to Dermarolling

April 28, 2018

 

Derma rolling, also known as microneedling, has become popular in treating acne scars and it can be used safely in a dermatologist’s clinic by an accredited dermatologist, as a simple office-based procedure.

It is a minimally invasive procedure that uses fine needles to puncture the epidermis to create micro wounds that stimulate the release of growth factors and induce collagen production. The procedure is painful and a prescription numbing cream is used to numb the skin before the treatment. Overall, the epidermis remains relatively intact and doesn’t seem to have many side effects when performed by a trained professional and with sterilised equipment. To this date, the procedure seems to be generally safe and low-cost method of improving acne scars, however, there are insufficient studies as yet to support the use of microneedling for various conditions as an evidence-based method. Microneedling can also be used for enhanced delivery of applied medications, “transdermal delivery” of cosmeceuticals such as vitamin C and vitamin A derivatives (retinoids) but this is best used with caution. In my personal experience, it can cause irritation and there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that it is superior to an optimised topically applied cosmeceutical alone. It has also been used for the treatment of hair loss, with steroids delivered for conditions such as alopecia areata, although it is not preferred over conventional methods of steroid injections for this autoimmune condition.

It lasts 10 to 20 minutes and informed consent is obtained about the expected outcomes, delayed response, and need for multiple sessions. Dermatologists also prepare the skin preoperatively for at least a month with vitamin A and C formulations twice a day to optimise results, such as enhancing dermal collagen formation.

There has been a proliferation of ‘home-care dermarollers’, which are of shorter needle length less than 0.15 mm for improvement of skin texture such as pore size, fine lines, sebum production and delivery of anti-ageing products. Some have also been developed for coverage of larger surface areas such as legs and buttocks for stretch marks and cellulite. In my view, there is insufficient data supporting the safety and effectiveness of home care dermarollers and is not recommended. For conditions such as acne scars, it is far more effective to recommend ablative fractional resurfacing.

On a related note, dermarollers carry risks which may be far more pronounced in the at-home group such as the following:

Infection. Medical microneedles are currently made of medical-grade stainless steel presterilized by gamma irradiation and are for single use only. Home dermarollers are usually made of smaller shorter needles, for multiple uses (other than washing in hot water, but this does NOT eliminate all viruses and bacteria, including a type of tap-water tuberculosis bacteria known as atypical mycobacteria). It is hard to predict how deep a home user may end up traumatising their skin, whereas when it is performed by an accredited dermatologist, sterility of the instrument as well as proper technique is applied.

Dermarollers should NOT be used in patients with anyone with these following problems i.e. active acne, skin infection such as Herpes labialis or warts, chronic skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Those with blood clotting abnormalities, or on anticoagulant therapy, chemo/radiotherapy are at high risk of bleeding and suffering rare infections using non-medical dermarollers.

Patients with keloidal tendency should also not use dermarollers.

Dermarolling may seem like a ‘less invasive’, easier or more novel option to traditional ways of treating acne scars, but it is definitely less effective than laser therapies. However, it has been used mainly in medical studies as a combination treatment with surgical/laser therapies to enhance results. It is also popular in darker skin types, as these patients can have a higher risk of developing hyperpigmentation as a side effect to ablative laser treatments, whereas microneedling does not seem to carry the same risk in such groups.

Dermarolling is only recommended when performed by an accredited dermatologist.  Even then, common side effects are redness and irritation (which usually subside within a few hours) and patients are often informed of the risks of scarring:  post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, worsening of acne and reactivation of herpes, systemic hypersensitivity, allergic granulomatous reactions (such as sarcoidosis) and local infections following the use of a nonsterile instrument, such as home-use dermarollers. In addition, there have been reports of allergies to materials used in the needles. Improper technique, such as when performed by a non-medical professional, can result in worsened acne scars, and injury.

There is not yet clear data available to substantiate the length of time which effects of dermarolling could last. Also, depending on the severity of the condition and what dermarolling is used for, it is important to note that severe conditions such as ice pick or box car acne scars or photoaging will not have dramatic improvement effects from dermarolling alone, but will benefit from a combination of laser/injectables/cosmeceuticals with or without dermarolling. Skin healing goes through different phases and occurs differently at different ages, with individual genetic differences, which will all play a factor in determining how long and how dramatic the benefits of dermarolling and treatments in general will present.

© 2017 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

A Dermatologist’s Guide to Enlarged Pores, Oily Skin and Acne in Singapore

April 13, 2018

 

One’s skin type is largely determined by the genetics of an individual.

The production of oil itself is genetically determined – if one has a family history of having oily skin, it is very likely that one would develop it as well, as this is directly linked to the production of androgens such as the male hormone testosterone at the onset of puberty which affects both males and females. Based on the proportion of patients at the clinic, there is a significant population of people with oily skin types in Singapore. This is because of overactivity of the sebaceous glands which are concentrated over the forehead nose and the chin area, but can also occur on any part of the face, as well as including the chest and back which are also the areas more acne-prone. Although further research needs to be done to prove the common belief that a humid climate like Singapore results in oily skin, what we do know is that climate changes can have an adverse impact on skin that is already diseased such as with underlying acne, facial eczema or rosacea which are the common skin conditions I see in my practice.

Problems associated with oily skin?

Acne is a major issue faced by those with oily skin. The cause of acne itself is multifactorial, involving primarily genetics which causes inflammation exacerbated by the production of oil often driven by hormonal factors, leading to the formation of whiteheads and blackheads. One of the ways of treating acne would include reducing oil production by the means of an oral medication known as isotretinoin or by physical methods, such as chemical peel microdermabrasion as well as laser treatments that will shrink the oil glands. To add clarity, while almost all acne prone patients have oily skin, this is not to say that having oily skin one definitely would suffer from acne.

Oily skin and ageing

One popular belief is that individuals with oily skin do not age as quickly. A desirable side-effect of oily skin perhaps? Or perhaps not.

Skin aging is due to a complex interplay of factors, with the key determining factor being a balance between one’s biology, influenced by genetics (have a look at how your parents are aging), as well as environmental aging, due to the exposure to ultraviolet rays, air pollutants, cigarette smoke as well as a stressful lifestyle. The key thing to note is that unhealthy skin ages poorly and much worse than healthy skin. In patients with facial eczema, for example, with dry dehydrated skin known as asteatosis, they are inherently unable to produce a fatty lipid known as ceramide, which helps to repair and restore the skin barrier. Without this, the skin is unable to protect itself from external allergens or changes in the environment and this can accelerate aging. Dehydrated skin has an unhealthy epidermis and dermis. As a result, this can accelerate aging in the form of wrinkles as well as the loss of volume.

If one has oily skin, the production of oil can form a barrier between the skin and the environment and this is a sort of protection which reduces the formation of fine lines and wrinkles or what cause free radical formation. Nevertheless, if one has an underlying skin condition such as scarred skin due to previous cystic acne, it doesn’t matter that your skin is oily, one would expect skin aging to progress faster than in a normal individual.

There is a study which shows that people with oily skin tend to look younger than their counterparts and this is well-proven in clinical practice. However, I would say that striving to have oily skin is actually not desirable, especially in a very humid climate like Singapore, as a shiny complexion could be quite embarrassing. Long-term overproduction of oil due to overactivity of the sebaceous glands can also lead to irregular skin texture and enlarged pores.

It is best to strive for healthy radiant skin that is well moisturized but not oily. There is a difference between moisturizer and oil, as I have seen many patients with nodular cystic acne and oily skin who also suffer from facial eczema which is dry dehydrated skin. Well moisturized skin is smooth and radiant, and looks healthy – a key component of the skin’s moisture is from molecules such as ceramide and hyaluronic acid which is an abundant water molecule in the second layer skin known as the dermis.

It is a myth that people with oily skin don’t really need moisturizer. In fact, you could have a lot of oil on your face and still have dehydrated skin that’s lacking in the key moisture molecules. Our patients who are on treatment for acne still use a good cosmeceutical moisturizer to lighten their scars, as well as Vitamin C and Hyaluronic acid serum that can restore the correct moisture balance in their skin to prevent excessive oil production known as reactive seborrhea. Reactive seborrhea occurs when one strips skin excessively of its natural oils causing the skin to produce even more oil.

Can someone with oily skin change to having normal skin with diligent skincare alone?

The amount of oil produced by an individual is genetically determined and influenced by the secretion of one’s hormones. It is however possible with proper long term cosmeceutical skincare, that one’s skin becomes adjusted in terms of restoring the normal moisture level.


Using improper skin care such as harsh oily-skin cleansers may strip skin completely dry and this leads to a vicious cycle known as reactive seborrhea.

The key ingredient involved in restoring skin moisture and not oil, is firstly a pure concentrated form of topical hyaluronic acid in our skin care. According to Dr Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre,  “We use a 1% concentrated hyaluronic acid serum freshly-compounded for optimum absorption in a pharmaceutical setting. This is easily a hundred to a thousand times higher than the concentration available in cosmetic skin preparations boasting the same ingredients. Regular use of topical hyaluronic acid has the effect of visually filling and plumping up the dermis (the second layer of skin which tends to sag with dehydration and aging), leading to a poreless, even complexion”

In terms of cleansing, I would recommend using an antibacterial foaming cleanser. The honey cleanser is formulated to remove grime, oil, bacteria and other surface pollutants that tend to settle on the skin at the end of the day. The nature of oily skin is that it tends to be a breeding ground for bacteria as well as a certain type of yeast known as malassezia which thrives in a humid climate like Singapore. This is a non-chemical form of an antibacterial and antiseptic wash, using natural medical grade honey which helps in reducing the amount of grease on one’s face. As honey is a natural humectant, it traps moisture under the skin while cleansing. It thus helps to moisturize the skin and regulates the balance of the oils as well as health of the skin.

For a targeted approach, treating oily skin – medically known as Hyperseborrhea, a visit to a dermatologist is recommended. This would typically involve counselling on the use of appropriate cosmeceuticals as well as a retinoid which can regulate oil production. Our patients would also undergo chemical peels (glycolic, lactic and salicylic acid peels) in combination with laser treatments that can help to shrink the oil glands and reduce oil production. From then on, once the amount of oil production is reduced, it is easier to maintain with topicals alone.

A skincare regime for oily skin

There is a recipe for healthy skin in the same way one is careful to have a healthy diet and lifestyle to prevent illness, rather than change one’s diet only after one gets sick. Whether or not you have dry, oily or combination skin, there is really skincare that is suited for you and the answer lies in dermatologist-tested cosmeceutical skincare. Cosmeceuticals are researched to include potent bioactive ingredients formulated to prevent the onset of aging, as well as to deliver nutrients to your skin.

Such a skincare regimen, is likened to a healthy diet that will prevent skin problems from developing later. If you have an underlying skin condition, cosmeceutical skincare can
also reduce the severity of acne and facial eczema. So it is indeed true, at least for cosmeceutical skincare, that there is a one-size-fits-all for all types of skin, as a recommendation for the basic healthy diet of skin.

The key conundrum in skincare that has been plaguing dermatologists in the last 50 years was really that the dermatologist-tested skincare (which is compatible with aging problem skin types) we advocated for our patients did not provide additional cosmeceutical benefits. These women then went looking for over-the-counter cosmetics skincare which promised them anti-aging, but clearly not without the irritation and side effects. Then the dermatological community turned its attention to clinically proven anti-oxidants in skincare and showed that cosmeceuticals were valid and important in the treatment of aging skin to restore skin health. The advent of cosmeceuticals promises the same level of non-irritating gentle skin cleansing and moisturizing, with all the power molecules antioxidants which can lighten scars, brighten your complexion and retard aging. What’s there not to love?

© 2017 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

Find Out If Men’s Skin Is Really Different from Women’s Skin

April 8, 2018

Most males are not that into cosmeceuticals. That is skincare with medical or drug-like benefits to improve skin health. Cosmeceuticals have a more relevant function than coloured cosmetics. Men have traditionally been uninterested in skin appearance, and only think of skincare as necessary when they face a specific skin concern – acne, oily skin, wrinkles or other topical skin conditions. Yes, using targeted skincare products are likely to help with these isolated issues, but having a daily skincare regime in place can avoid them completely.

Most skincare products used by men are likely to be purchased by women, even though most are unaware that male cosmeceuticals are distinct from those that females use. Many of the male products are created to address male facial hair, such as preshave treatments, shaving products and post-shave skin care. Yet, men’s skin is structurally different from females and knowing these differences can be a good place to start your skincare journey.

Oil control

Sebum production is also greater in males, this is mostly due to testosterone secretions. This can mean longer-lasting acne for men. The oil glands on our skin are more receptive towards testosterone, so it is no coincidence that we see males having oily skin more often than females.

Collagen content

We see signs of our skin ageing such as wrinkles and sagging skin as our collagen content decreases as we age. After our thirties, both men and women start to lose one per cent of our collagen each year. But for women, this loss escalates greatly in the first five years after menopause, explaining for why women experience skin ageing faster than men do.

Thickness of skin

Male skin is typically 20 to 30 per cent thicker than that of females. The presence of testosterone accounts for this difference. A man’s skin will continue to thin gradually with age, while a woman’s skin will only thin significantly after menopause. With a higher collagen density which is the ratio of collagen to the thickness of the skin, it explains why men tend to age slower than women of the same age. However, this difference may not be readily noticed as men are less active in protecting their skin from sun damage. The lack of habit in using sunscreen would allow UV radiation to add years to the skin.

That being said, the importance of sunscreen should be emphasized. The skincare product that we should all have is really the sunscreen. We know we are nagging, but please put on your sunscreen.

The skincare regime of male usually fits into either one of these options. They could be either be using soap and water only, or products that are targeted to men, or cherry pick a product from their partner. There are several main concerns with these options. Cherry picking products would likely result in using something that is not suited for men skin. Using gender-focused products may also not be effective as manufacturers typically employ stereotypes to target shoppers. Lastly, common soap and water are never sufficient for facial cleansing, simply because it causes your face to go into an alkaline state that can result in dryness (your skin should ideally be slightly acidic, at about pH of 5.5). Washing with a bar soap can pull all the water out of the skin, leaving your skin dehydrated and a buildup of dead skin cells.

Most men hope to have clean, fresh, clear and smooth skin. And the preferred approach to achieving healthier skin is to have minimal steps in their skincare routine. An ideal skincare routine should begin with a proper cleanser. (No soap and water, please!) Use a pea-sized amount of Miel Honey™ Cleanser and work it into a lather over the entire face. This is to facilitate the removal of sebum and debris. Use cold water as heat can be irritating to the skin. The lather from the Honey Cleanser also doubles up as a “shaving lotion”, lubricating the shave with anti bacterial Honey which thoroughly cleanses the skin without over-drying the jaw line shave areas that could be especially sensitive and prone to acne breakouts!

Sun exposure can damage your DNA, and cause wrinkling and skin cancer. Add SunProtector™ to your routine for daily application. With an SPF value of 50, it is sufficient to safeguard the skin from free radicals and keep it sun damage-free. UV radiation is a common culprit that compromises our skin’s integrity and can lead to sensitive skin or dryness. Developed in a research laboratory, this sunscreen is also formulated in-house for Singapore’s humid climate, so rest assured and lather on.

Keep your face moisturised with Radiancé Fluide™ Hydrating Emulsion. As you age, your skin cells will start losing the ability to retain as much moisture as before, as collagen levels decline over time. Deliver essential nutrients such as amino acids and oligopeptides to your skin with this moisturiser to keep your skin bright and healthy.

© 2017 twlskin.com. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, consultant dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

The Beauty Routine for Bridal Skin

March 25, 2018

Planning for your big day? Yes, you have finally found your dress, and you are beyond ecstatic. Only to be bogged down with issues about the wedding venue, sending invitations, your flowers and finding suitable photographers. Nevertheless, don’t let all the stress get to you, and your skin! You would certainly want to walk down the altar with glowing radiant skin after all, so here’s a guide to prep your skin just in time for your D-Day.

When it comes to wedding beauty, women tend to get more hardworking with their regular masking and night-time routines. Changing your beauty routine two or three months before your big day can give you ample time for your skin to reach its optimal condition. Apart from religiously looking after your skin, keep a lookout for your lifestyle habits. Start exercising, take regular meals, and cut down on the alcohol. Make sure you are sleeping well; a lack of sleep will certainly play no help in skin recovery.

Treat those dark spots and wrinkles with a chemical peel

If a major skincare concern such as hyperpigmentation has been troubling you, visit a dermatologist to see what your options are. You can go for chemical peels to reduce the appearance of sun spots, fine lines, wrinkles, enlarged pores and acne scars.

Performed by a dermatologist, a chemical peel treatment improves the appearance of the skin by gently stimulating the top layer of the skin cells by applying a solution made of fruit-derived acids. Such acids include alpha-hydroxy acids, glycolic acid, lactic and salicylic acid. This treatment can stimulate the skin to regenerate, revealing a taut, baby-smooth skin.

Chemical peels are more cost-effective compared to other treatments such as lasers, and more beneficial for the skin than beautician facials. A thorough evaluation is required before proceeding with a chemical peel. It is not recommended to undergo chemical peels with aestheticians or beauticians. In Singapore, only medical doctors have access to the prescription-level peel strength required to allow results.

Consult your dermatologist for an assessment for a chemical peel treatment plan catered for best results leading up to your wedding day. After the treatment, you may experience a reaction similar to sunburn where redness can be seen. Commence your chemical peel treatment plan at least three months prior to the wedding, for time buffer in particular, for your skin to be optimally renewed ahead of time and avoid any potential redness.

Common beauty concerns before a wedding include back and chest acne. Being in a wedding dress means your back and neck area will most likely be exposed. Acne at these areas as well as the face, may be well managed and controlled with chemical peels by your dermatologist, for your most radiant self to be presenting on the big day. Do avoid the sun as much as you can and stick to complete sun protection, such as sunscreen and sunglasses to reduce the sun damage.

Makeup may have varying results on camera, so it’s probably unwise to count on that to capture your best on the wedding day. To ensure that radiant glow on photos, a little more effort now on your skincare routine, could be a very worthwhile investment to yield super glowing and almost flawless (if not flawless) skin on camera on your big day.

Pre-wedding skincare routine at home

Go for a rich, nourishing serum like the Elixir-V™ Total Recovery Serum for hydrating, lifting and tightening of your face for the sculptured V-face look. Such a serum is perfect for pampering your face before your big day. The Larecea™ extract found in the serum supports skin regeneration and helps in reversing signs of aging. Hyaluronic acid is also included to preserve and replenish moisture, working to keep our skin hydrated. Antioxidants such as Resveratrol protects the skin against sun damage and lowers incidence of skin disorders. Infused in the Elixir-V™ is also Oligopeptides, which are essentially protein molecules that can help to repair and lift the skin, giving brides the perfect V-face look.

Vitamin C should also be an imperative component in your pre-wedding skincare regime. Try the Vitá C Gold™ Serum if you are guilty of living without Vitamin C previously, as a proprietary formulation with a super-stabilized form of Vitamin C that delivers more anti-oxidant efficacy than the conventional ascorbic acid which deteriorates quickly. Vitamin C is a superstar ingredient that helps fade pigmentation and uneven skin tone. The ability of this vitamin to aid the skin in healing and resist acne, keeps it a top favourite ingredient, and you can also bid farewell to errant sun spots and scars from your youth. It also protects skin cells from damage, keeping the skin healthy and bright for your wedding day.

Other miscellaneous tips you will need

It’s a proud moment, and you have the right to flaunt it. Everyone will be throwing glances at your rings, so ransack your vanity drawers for that spare hand cream you never used. Toss it in your hand bag and perhaps another on your bedside table. Start a habit of lathering your hand cream on, and that will be one problem crossed off the list.

And if you are rocking a backless wedding dress, you would want to keep your back acne far away. It can be nerve-racking, but if you start a regimen early, you can still bring back the sexy back. Apply a minimum SPF30 sunscreen liberally, as clothing does not block all the UV light. Keep your sunscreen lightweight with like the SunProtector™ to avoid the greasy feel whilst ensuring that the sun does not cause more damage or breakouts. For mild acne, even on the back, commencing a diligent skincare routine with cosmeceuticals could yield very tangible results ahead of your wedding day. For best results and in cases of more severe acne, however, consult your dermatologist for peels, topicals and a complete treatment plan to help in skin renewal, to unclog pores and reduce back acne.

Lastly, to avoid looking greasy on camera, dust some good setting powder to limit the shine while still keeping the glow.

© 2017 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

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Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

 

Your Guide to Melasma

March 18, 2018

 

What is melasma?

Melasma is an acquired skin problem of hyperpigmentation, frequently faced by women in their reproductive years. The condition is characterized by hyperpigmentation primarily on the face, so we may observe irregular brown or blue-grey macules on the face. Common areas where the brown patches appear are cheeks, nose, forehead, jaw and the chin.

How prevalent is the disorder?

While melasma occurs in all ethnic and population groups, studies have shown that there is a higher prevalence among more pigmented phenotypes. These include Asians, Indian, Pakistani and Middle Eastern. In the Americas, those who suffer from melasma mostly live in intertropical areas where exposure to UV rays are greater.

What are the different types of hyperpigmentation?

You may be doing your research diligently to find out more about melasma, but there are different types of pigmentation, and they are not all the same. Apart from melasma, your face could be suffering from freckles, sun spots or age spots. Freckles, or ephelides, are small, flat and brown marks that are prevalent in childhood. Sunspots, or solar lentigo, only surfaces in our late twenties and can increase in size and number with increasing sun exposure. Age spots, or seborrheic keratosis, is actually not a form of pigmentation, but a non-cancerous skin growth that kicks in with age.

Melasma, on the other hand, can be identified with a greyish-brown discolouration, at times in the shape of a butterfly.

What causes melasma?

While the cause of the disorder remains unknown, current research point towards sex hormones and sun exposure as the greatest culprits.

These brown patches appear on our face as when there is an excessive production of a pigment called melanin. UV radiation induces the increase in melanin production to protect the skin from sun damage. This causes the development of pigmentation to take place on the skin. A leading cause of melasma is excessive sunlight exposure.

Hormones can also be another cause of melasma. You may develop this condition at the start of your pregnancy or if you are on birth control pills. Pregnant women experience higher levels of increased progesterone, estrogen and melanocyte-stimulating hormones. Melanocytes are cells that produce melanin in your skin.

Other causes can be due to certain medications, scented or deodorant soaps, or your toiletries. These products may contain an ingredient that causes a phototoxic reaction that can trigger melasma.

What are the types of melasma?

There are three types of melasma: epidermal, dermal and mixed.

The epidermal layer affects the outermost surface of the skin, and the easiest type to treat. It can be identified by the presence of excessive levels of melanin in that layer. Patches will be a darker brown colour, with a defined outline.

The dermal layer will affect a deeper layer of the skin beneath the superficial layer, and we can recognise it by the occurrence of melanophages throughout the dermis. Melanophages are cells that ingest melanin. The dermal layer can be more deep-rooted, and may not respond well to treatment. For this layer, patches have a less defined outline, with light brown or bluish colour.

A mixed condition of melasma would be having both the epidermal and dermal types, and improvements on the condition can be expected with treatment.

How to treat melasma? 

The response of melasma to treatment can be slower if the condition has been present for a longer time.

Excessive sun exposure leads to the deposition of melanin cells within the dermis and can persist long term. Coming into contact with UV radiation will deepen the pigmentation as it will activate the production of more melanin, causing your brown patches to turn darker and harder to remove.

Generally, by including sun protection into your skin routine, hyperpigmentation can be resisted. With Singapore’s tropical weather, it is recommended to reapply sun protection every 2 hours with a broad-spectrum sunscreen having at least SPF 30. Consider bringing along sunglasses or a hat when you are outdoors.

For clinical treatments, consultation with a trained dermatologist is recommended. A proper diagnosis of melasma should be conducted, and screened if there are any underlying conditions that may require treatment.

Prescriptions may be given to inhibit the formation of melanin. Hydroquinone is a controlled ingredient that is frequently included in medications to treat melasma, as it allows lightening of the skin. A precise concentration of hydroquinone should be administered for treatment, and may be professionally managed so by your dermatologist.

Procedural treatments for melasma can also be considered, such as chemical peels and lasers. Expected efficacy of each treatment can vary depending on the severity of melasma, with topical combination therapies being one of the most effective treatments for hyperpigmentation.

Speak to your dermatologist for a tailored recovery experience.

© 2017 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

—–

Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

 

 

 

Dermatologist Tips: How Does Pollution Affect The Skin?

March 7, 2018

The outermost layer of the skin often serves as a physical barrier against harmful environmental toxins, as it is directly exposed to various pollutants such as particulate matter and free radicals. As its immediate proximity to external environment puts the skin at greater risk of being damaged by stressors, it is important that we take extra care in avoiding such environmental hazards as much as we can.

Oxidative Stress in Skin

Our skin is often exposed to a variety of harmful electrophiles and free radicals, often produced as a result of exposure to chemicals and ionizing radiation. Our body naturally produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts of cellular processes, but an excess of ROS causes oxidative stress in skin cells.

According to Dr Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre, she said: “Our body keeps levels of ROS in check with free-radical-scavenging mechanisms, such as antioxidants. External sources of ROS, such as UV radiation, environmental pollutants and harmful chemicals, can cause a state of oxidative stress when they overwhelm our body’s defences and become unable to keep up with the frequent ROS production. It is the excessive generation of ROS that we should avoid for healthier skin.”

Oxidative stress causes our cellular components and macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein or lipids to be damaged. When ROS reacts with the lipid bilayer of our skin, it can lead to a weakened skin barrier function.

Particulate matter

Environmental air pollution consists of various particulate matter (PM). PM includes harmful suspended contaminants in the air and is heavy contributors to air pollution. We are familiar with PM 2.5, which can be found from diesel-exhaust particles that are less than 2.5μm in diameter. Composed of organic carbon compounds, nitrates and sulfates, PM2.5 can settle on the skin and aggravates inflammatory response in our skin cells, triggering skin symptoms.

The main mechanism of PM2.5 is the generation of ROS, leading to greater oxidative stress on skin cells. These particles can act as carriers for unwanted chemicals and metals that can localise in our mitochondria. This leads to the production of ROS in the mitochondria, and causing the effect of collagen degradation in our skin and thereby result in wrinkle formation and skin ageing.

On the surface of PM are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to not only an increased production of ROS, but also interfere with our gene expression for wrinkle formation and pigment spot formulation.

Our skin condition is also affected by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The solar UV spectrum is divided into two specific wavebands according to wavelength: UVA and UVB. Excessive sun exposure initiates photo-oxidation reactions, causing damage to our skin cells as it affects pathological processes.

Radiation from UVA penetrates into the deeper layers of our skin, inducing the production of ROS and causing extensive damage. Sunburns are caused by UVB, as an inflammatory response from our skin due to photodamage. UVB can also cause mutation and skin cancer.

An exposure to UV radiation is the main factor of skin aging, known as photoageing. The rate of degeneration depends on the frequency, duration and intensity of our cumulative exposure to solar rays and the degree of protection of our skin pigmentation. Given that photoaging accounts for as much as 80 per cent of facial aging, we should always be armed with sun protection.

There are various ways to protect your skin against environmental aggressors. A good supply of anti-oxidants in your diet can provide photoprotection against solar UV radiation. Carotenoids, vitamin E and C are good anti-oxidants.

Any prevention must be complemented with the use of topical sunscreen with a high sun protection factor. Not all sunscreens are created equal. Dermatologists would recommend only a few brands of sunscreens. Effective sunscreens will protect against skin cancer and block out harmful UVB rays. Ingredients that a good sunscreen should include are derivatives of vitamin C, antioxidants or phytochemicals.

Those blessed with normal skin conditions should continue regular application of sunscreen, and stick to gentle skincare products. Patients with eczema are advised to visit a dermatologist if their condition continues to worsen from environment aggressors. Topical steroids and emollients may be prescribed, as eczema is not a condition that will go away in time.

Lifestyle habits such as smoking and drinking as it can increase the production of free radicals and accelerate skin aging. For those at high-risk with excessive exposure to sun, sun avoidance is advocated whenever possible. Avoid the sun from 10am to 4pm, and don on long sleeves for greatest protection.

© 2017 TWL Specialist Skin and Laser Centre. All rights reserved.

—–

Meet with Dr. Teo Wan Lin, an accredited dermatologist at TWL Specialist Skin & Laser Centre, for a thorough consultation to determine the most suitable treatment for your skin.

To book an appointment with Dr. Teo, call us at +65 6355 0522, or email appt@twlskin.com. Alternatively, you may fill up our contact form here.

 

 

 

 

 

error: Copyright © 2017 twlskin.com. All rights reserved.